satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon.Satellites are used for a large number of purposes. Common types include military to and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, the weather satellites, and research satellites. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well known classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.The first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit is a short story by Edward Everett Hale, The Brick Moon. The story is serialized in The Atlantic Monthly, starting in 1869.The idea surfaces again in Jules Verne's The Begum's Fortune. to
The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on October and the initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer . This in turn to triggered the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States.Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital some change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1 s success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States to and ignited the so called Space Race within the Cold War. 1946, Project RAND had released the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World Circling Spaceship, which stated, A some satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century. The United States had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy. The United States Air Force's Project RAND eventually released the above report, but did not believe that the satellite was a potential military weapon; rather, they considered it to be a tool for science, politics, and propaganda. In 1954, the Secretary of Defense stated, I know of no American satellite program.In 1903, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published Means of Reaction Devices , which is the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch some spacecraft. He calculated the orbital speed required for a minimal orbit around the Earth at 8 km/s, and that a multi-stage rocket fueled by liquid propellants could be used to achieve this. He proposed the use of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen,though other combinations can be used.In 1928 Slovenian Herman Potocnik published his sole book, The Problem of Space Travel The Rocket Motor , a plan for a breakthrough into space and a permanent to human presence there. He conceived of a space station in detail and calculated its at the geostationary orbit. He described the use of orbiting spacecraft for detailed peaceful and military observation of the ground and described how the special conditions of space could be useful for scientific experiments. The book described geostationary satellites and some discussed communication between them and the ground using radio, but fell short of the idea of using satellites for mass broadcasting and as telecommunications relays. A tele to communications satellite or comsat is an artificial satellite sent to space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits, orbits, elliptical orbits and low.For fixed services, communications it satellites provide microwave radio relay technology complementary that of communication cables. They are also used for mobile applications such communications to ships, vehicles, planes and hand held terminals, and for TV and radio broadcasting.The Merriam Webster dictionary Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines a satellite as a celestial body orbiting the another of larger size or a manufactured object or vehicle intended to orbit the earth, the moon, or another celestial body.Electronic communications devices like cell phones and computers on the internet utilize satellite communications .Today satellite communications can trace origins all the way back to the moon. A project named Communication Moon to Relay, was a tele communication project carried out by the United States Navy. Its objective was to develop a secure and reliable method of wireless communication by using the Moon as a natural communications satellite.The first artificial satellite used solely to further some advances in global communications was a balloon named Echo 1.ECHO 1 space.com Echo 1 was world's first artificial communications satellite capable of relaying signals to other to points on Earth. It soared 1,000 miles above the planet after its Aug. launch, yet relied on humanity's oldest flight technology ballooning. Launched by NASA, Echo 1 was a giant metallic balloon 100 feet across. The world's first inflatable satellite or satelloon, as they were informally known helped lay the foundation of today's satellite communications. The idea behind a communications satellite is simple: Send data up into space and beam it back down to another spot on the globe. Echo 1 accomplished this by essentially serving as an enormous mirror 10 stories tall that could be used to bounce communications signals off of. The first American satellite to relay communications was Project SCORE in 1958, which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. It was used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. NASA launched the Echo satellite in 1960; the 100 foot aluminium PET film balloon served as a passive reflector for radio communications. Courier 1B, built by Philco, also launched in 1960, was the world's first active repeater satellite.